Hepatitis is a viral condition that causes the liver to become inflamed and damaged. The most common types are hepatitis B and C. Hepatitis B is caused by the HBV virus which can cause scarring of the liver and lead to cancer, cirrhosis or liver failure. Hepatitis C is caused by contact with the blood of an infected person.

Hepatitis causes

Hepatitis is a viral condition that causes the liver to become inflamed and damaged. The most common types are hepatitis B and C.

Hepatitis B is caused by the HBV virus which can cause scarring of the liver and lead to cancer, cirrhosis or liver failure. It can be passed from mother to child or be caused by contaminated needles or equipment that has been in contact with infected blood. Having a tattoo, body piercing or medical treatment in an unhygienic environment with unsterilised equipment can be a source of hepatitis B while risk is heightened by unprotected sex and travel to regions where the condition is prevalent.

Most cases of hepatitis B in adults can be fought off by the body’s immune system in around six months. The younger you are when it is contracted the more likely it will develop into a chronic condition but a vaccination is now available for people considered high risk

Hepatitis C is caused by contact with the blood of an infected person. Almost 90 per cent of cases occur in people who have inject drugs or have injected drugs in the past as the infection is spread by sharing contaminated needles and other equipment associated with recreational drug or steroid use. This can include toothbrushes, scissors and razors which have minute traces of infected blood.

Public Health England estimates that 160,000 people in England are living with hepatitis C.


Many people do not show symptoms for hepatitis B and it can remain undetected for months or years before they show. The symptoms include fever, joint and abdominal pain, loss of appetitive, nausea, skin rash, dark urine, weakness and jaundice.

A similar symptom profile exists for hepatitis C and both types can progress from an acute infection that the body can fight off to a chronic condition which can cause serious lasting damage to the liver.

Chronic cases can be associated with a mental deterioration or ‘brain fog’, depression or anxiety.


It is important to seek medical advice from a GP if you are in an at-risk group and have symptoms. But if you feel you may have been infected, medical opinion is also advisable as symptoms may not show.

A blood sample will be sent to a laboratory for analysis to test for specific antibodies that are present when the body tries to combat the initial infection but a second test – called a PCR – can also determine if certain antigens are present, indicating the condition is replicating.

A consultant may also request a needle biopsy to remove a tiny piece of the liver for further analysis.


If the hepatitis B infection is in the acute stage, a doctor may prescribe rest and a nutrition boosting diet to help the body fight it off. If it has progressed to the chronic stage, a course of anti-viral medication can bolster the body’s immune system to slow it down and reduce the damage caused to the liver.

A course of a synthetic version of a substance produced by the body to fight infection can be given as a weekly injection to young people. Specialists also have other drugs, taken as daily tablets, that can be used to control the condition.

Patients with hepatitis C will be prescribed anti-viral drugs as a combination therapy depending on which one of the six main strains of virus identified by the tests. Lifestyle changes – such as removing at risk activities and improving diet and exercise regimes – will also help. It is estimated that around 90% of patients can be cured with the latest medications.

Contact us

To ask a question, make an enquiry or book an appointment, contact our specialist team who are available between Monday – Friday 8am – 6pm and on Saturday from 9.00am to 2.00pm. Our GI Unit team have a dedicated and caring approach and will seek to find you the earliest appointment possible with the correct specialist for your needs.

prolapse treatment london

GI Clinic

The GI Unit is supported by a multidisciplinary team of medical and surgical consultants. Our expert team treats and supports patients with any gastrointestinal conditions.

A patient speaking to a receptionist

Patient information

Our Hospital is renowned for providing exemplary levels of care across more than 90 services. From orthopaedics, to urology, our private GP practice and Urgent Care Clinic, our services are led by some of London’s leading Consultants. For more information, and to find a service suitable for your care, find out more about the services that we offer.

Make an enquiry

If you have any questions relating to treatment options or pricing information, get in touch with us by filling out one of our contact boxes or giving us a call on 020 7078 3802.

Our Appointments Team have a dedicated and caring approach to finding you the earliest appointment possible with the best specialist.

If you are self-paying you don’t need a referral from your GP for a consultation. You can simply refer yourself* and book an appointment.

If you have health insurance (e.g. Bupa, Axa Health, Aviva), you will need to contact your insurer to get authorisation before any treatment, and in most cases you will also require a referral letter from your GP.

If you are not registered with a GP, we have an in-house private GP practice you can use. Alternatively, we can suggest the most appropriate course of action for you to take, given your location and individual circumstances.

*Please note – for investigations such as X-rays and MRIs, a referral will be required. However, we may be able to arrange this for you through our on-site private GP.

    Make an enquiry

    Latest articles

    The latest news, insights and views from St John and Elizabeth Hospital.

    Find out what we’re doing to keep you safe, read expert articles and interviews with our leading specialist Consultants, learn more about common conditions and get your questions answered.

    05th July 2022

    What to expect as you recover from a stroke

    The sooner you begin therapy after a stroke, the more likely you are…

    first signs of mini-stroke

    24th May 2022

    The first signs of a mini-stroke and how to recover

    Having a stroke is a frightening experience, which over 100,000 people go through…

    home remedies for stomach pain

    05th May 2022

    Home remedies for stomach pain and when you should go to the hospital

    We all know what it’s like to have an upset tum or be…

    About hje hospital

    18th March 2022

    About St John & St Elizabeth Hospital

    Over the coming months, in planned phases, we’re opening the last few areas…

    health insurance

    18th March 2022

    Should you get health insurance?

    When it comes to paying for private healthcare, there are two main options…

    staying healthy while travelling

    17th March 2022

    5 tips for staying healthy abroad

    After the past couple of years we’ve had, you might be itching to…

    Private Cyst Removal

    20th January 2022

    What are cysts, and is cyst removal always needed?

    Cysts are a common skin condition, but what causes them, and do you…

    treatment after stroke

    18th January 2022

    Treatment after a stroke: What can you expect?

    A stroke occurs every five minutes in the UK. Post-stroke treatment is critical…

    medical professional looking into microscope

    12th January 2022

    Under the microscope: The many benefits of private healthcare

    Whatever your situation, there might come a point when you consider going private…

    shoulder pain

    11th January 2022

    What causes shoulder pain and what can you do about it?

    The shoulder is made up of various joints and tendons that allow a…

    gallbladder attack

    04th December 2021

    Are you having a gallbladder attack? Find out more about the causes, symptoms and treatment

    A gallbladder attack can happen at a moment’s notice and cause aggressive pain….

    overactive bladder

    02nd December 2021

    Constantly need to pee? How to treat an overactive bladder

    If you regularly get the feeling that you’ve “got to go”, you’re not…